Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations (DJEMI).

Publication History

Published: January 01, 2023




Hamza Ahamd (2023). Impact of employee training on job satisfaction through mediating role of employee commitment: An empirical study of Pakistan steel mills. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(01):19-28.


© 2023 DJEMI. All rights reserved

Impact of Employee Training on Job Satisfaction through mediating role of Employee Commitment: An Empirical Study of Pakistan Steel MillsOriginal Article

Hamza Ahamd1*

  1. The Tashkent State University of Economics, Uzbekistan; h.ahmad2087@gmail.com

*             Correspondence: h.ahmad2087@gmail.com

Abstract: In today’s modern corporations, one of the most important tools for increasing employee commitment is employee training. It has been discovered that businesses need to acknowledge the significance of employee training because of the impact that globalization and the technological era have had on the world. In order to raise awareness about the importance of employee training for ensuring job satisfaction and commitment from workers. Commitment from workers is absolutely necessary for businesses if they wish to achieve a high level of organizational performance, and this commitment can only be won over if workers feel fulfilled in their work. This study has investigated whether or not providing employees with additional training can boost levels of employee commitment and satisfaction with their jobs. A questionnaire was used for data collection. N=170 questionnaires were handed out to employees in managerial-level positions at Pakistan steel mills, and N=150 of those questionnaires were returned. Utilizing Smart PLS Analysis provides a solid foundation for the model. The findings demonstrate that employee commitment can be increased through proper training as well as job satisfaction. The findings indicated a positive correlation between employee training and employee commitment, with job satisfaction serving as a mediating function; consequently, the findings have significant implications. A methodology known as a cross-sectional correlational study was used for this investigation. It has been found that employee commitment is positively linked with job satisfaction as well as job satisfaction itself.

Keywords: employee training, job satisfaction, employee commitment, Pakistan steel mill


Employee Training is a vital tool in modern corporations for boosting employee commitment. It has been discovered that in order for businesses to remain competitive in today’s globalized and technologically advanced environment, they must recognize the significance of investing in employee training. The training provided to employees demonstrates an important role in employee commitment [1]. There are a few researchers who contend that employee training has no bearing on employee commitment; alternatively, different factors and HR practices are responsible for employee commitment. Some people believe that training for employees is necessary in order to improve the capacity of human resources to acquire a certain skill. On the other hand, there are those who believe that it makes it easier for employees to accomplish their professional goals and objectives [2]. It has also been suggested that employee training programs increase the level of commitment shown by workers. The researchers also found that employee training could have different results; as a result, the researchers should have the intention of discovering the various impacts that employee training has on employee commitment. According to the research that has been conducted, there are multiple benefits to be gained from researching employee training, commitment, and job satisfaction in a variety of settings [3]. According to the findings of a study, employee training has two components. First, from the viewpoint of the institution, every company needs to find a way to foster employee commitment among their workforce. Training and development activities are absolutely necessary for the growth of an employee’s capabilities as well as their professional trajectory [4]. Companies have been forced to keep their employee training programs going in order to improve the capabilities of their workforce in response to a lack of trained and skilled workers in the workforce. On the other hand, this is precisely why today’s most successful businesses are making significant investments in employee training to foster greater levels of employee commitment among their workforce [5]. In this day and age, increasing the level of job satisfaction that employees have is the organizational strategy. This is due to the fact that it is widely acknowledged that an employee’s level of commitment to their employer increases in direct proportion to their level of personal well-being. An educational institution has an obligation to provide a healthy working environment for its teachers so that those teachers can devote their full attention to their work, which will, in turn, improve their productivity, boost their level of job satisfaction, and, in the long run, result in increased levels of commitment and productivity among faculty and non-faculty staff [6]. In this study, an examination of the impact on job satisfaction was carried out to determine whether or not it acts as a mediator between employee commitment and training. Pakistan’s steel mills are unable to comprehend the actual significance of their workers’ training, let alone its influence on the level of dedication and contentment they experience on the job. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employee training and job satisfaction, as well as the relationship between job satisfaction and employee commitment.


This research is on employee training, employee commitment, and job satisfaction, so we get help from the relevant literature in this research work. This literature review tells us that an organization must offer training programs to increase employees’ job satisfaction and commitment. Employee training is being given to organizations’ employees to get high productivity from them, and it will only get if there is commitment and job satisfaction. The theoretical foundations for this research paper are provided by the social exchange theory [7]. According to the theory, employees favor organizations because they anticipate future benefits. As a result, organizations maintain the affiliation of related social exchange, and the relationship is based on exchange. The employees’ bond is high when they feel that their organization is worth it and acknowledges their performance. Organizations get a high level of commitment from employees when they provide training to their employees to enhance their skills [8]. The theory of social trade offers theoretical foundations for this research paper. The concept suggests that employees desire some expectancies of being preferred by their organizations. Employees remain dedicated to the organizations once they believe their organizations value and appreciate them [9]. Cooperate sector offer training to their employees and get employee commitment in return. Employee training is an amalgamation of processes that constantly enhances employee learning, skills, and organizational performance. Employee training is a study action to obtain quality knowledge and skills desired to execute a professional assignment. Employee training results in high productivity for the organization. Employee training is interference planned to heighten employee commitment and job satisfaction of employees; it increases organizational yield and effectiveness [10]. Employees can develop new skills and knowledge shared during training, leading to job satisfaction and employee commitment. Employees’ abilities, skills, and aptitudes are critical for performing efficiently and effectively. It is necessary to encourage employees of an organization by offering them quality training that benefits their skills group [11]. Training provides an extreme level of motivation among employees as they feel ownership and responsibility for the organization, and it automatically enhances the individual’s skills and performance. Many researchers said that training transforms an employee’s approach to his job because training motivates the employee’s performance. Training is considered an exercise for boosting employees’ capabilities to perform their jobs better. Training results in high job satisfaction, performance, and productivity [12]. Before exploring employee commitment with an organization, discussing this concept and identifying methods would be mandatory. Employee commitment is a strength that helps employees set their professional targets and facilitates achieving them. Employee commitment drives employees to remain passionate about achieving their professional and organizational goals. Employee commitment has three types. Affective commitment tells us about the employees who want to stay with the organization. Effective employee commitment results in the prolonged stay of employees with the organization. In the practical approach, employees feel that they fit in the organization in terms of their compatibility with the job role [13]. The concept of normative commitment refers to an aspect of employees that discusses aspect of employees that makes them stay with an organization because of available advantages in that specific organization, such as learning opportunities, professional development, and other similar opportunities [14]. This kind of employee commitment results in a greater dedication to the organization, and employees begin contributing their efforts and hard work, which increases the length of time they remain with the organization. The term “continuance commitment” refers to the need for employees to remain with an organization because there are fewer job opportunities available in the market, as well as remuneration they don’t expect to get from the market or don’t get any offer of this kind [15]. And if they believe that their salary and fringe benefits will not improve if they switch organizations, then this type of commitment is also suitable for the organization. This type of commitment is suitable for the organization because employees will put in their maximum effort because they do not have other options, and the organization will achieve the required performance as a result of employee commitment [16]. Employees are said to experience job satisfaction when they feel happy and grateful after achieving their goals. A factor that determines the attitude of workers and measures the level of pleasure they experience on the inside can be used to explain and analyze levels of satisfaction. Because it creates a competitive advantage, job satisfaction is often portrayed as having enormous value, both for employees and for the organizations that employ them [17]. Only when employees are happy with their jobs and with the organization as a whole are they able to give their best effort toward the accomplishment of organizational targets and goals. Employees are said to experience feelings of job satisfaction when they behave in a way that satisfies their job expectations, and this behavior is evaluated by the employees. [18] A number of researchers have referred to a feeling of employees’ job satisfaction as “job satisfaction.” It is about the satisfaction of the employees’ emotions regarding the job, their surroundings, and the overall situation, including their relationships with their coworkers [19]. The research demonstrates that in order for businesses to achieve their goals of maximizing employee output, it is necessary for employers to provide workers with opportunities such as training and a sense of accomplishment in their work. It wasn’t until the 1930s that a study on job satisfaction gained widespread attention. At that time, researchers began investigating the attitudes of workers and developed a conceptual framework for conducting multiple job satisfaction polls. One of the earliest theories to attempt to determine the factors that are most important in determining levels of job satisfaction was Maslow’s need for hierarchy theory [20].

H1: Employee training and employee commitment have a significant relationship.

H2: Employee training and job satisfaction have a significant relationship

H3: Job satisfaction and employee commitment have a significant relationship.

Figure 01: Research Model


This study’s population is drawn from managerial-level employees of Pakistan steel mills, with a total accessible population of N=150. The sample size is N=30, and the technique of simple random sampling is used. Google Forms was used to collect data. The reliability and validity of variables are shown in Table 1 below.

Table 01: Reliability

Table 02: Validity

Table 03: Discriminant Validity Table

Table 04: Discriminant Validity Table


The construct exhibits the correlation between the structures and the indicator variables. The first element of the construct is the analysis of the reliability, which contains the composite reliability. The benchmark limit of the composite reliability is 0.70 as per. Therefore, the underlying construct holds the composite reliability [21]. The convergent validity is the second element; the measure of convergent validity is Average Variance Extracted (AVE), for which the benchmark limit value is 0.50, so the structures achieved convergent validity. The element applied to assess the constructs’ variate validity is Heterotrait Monotrait (HTMT) Ratio [22]. It has specified to verify the discriminant validity, the highly traditional verge values of the HTMT ratio are less than or equal to 0.90. In this research analysis, the value of Job Satisfaction is more significant than 0.90; therefore, discriminant validity is not achieved [23].

Figure 02: SmartPLS Model

The result of the research gives intense experimental support to the hypothesis; that employee training enhances job satisfaction. This outcome determines if an organization offers training to its employees, which positively impacts job satisfaction.

Table 05: Hypotheses Results

* Significance at 10% (1.645) p<0.10, ** Significance at 5% (1.96)- p<0.05, *** Significance at 1% (2.576) p<0.0

Because of this outcome, this study has found that employee training helps employees develop skills that empower them to execute their jobs proficiently [24]. According to the organizational perspective, learning is the execution of training and development programs and how training is presented [25], which lifts job satisfaction, enabling employees to respond in the way of enhanced commitment [26].


It was discovered that there is a significant correlation between employee training and employee commitment, and it was also discovered that employee commitment significantly moderates the relationship between employee training and employees’ happiness in their jobs. This theory makes sense, given that training employees typically results in the increased dedication on the part of employees toward their jobs. According to the findings of this research project, one of the most important roles that job satisfaction plays is that of a positive mediator between employee training and commitment. The findings of the study provide substantial empirical support for the hypothesis, which states that providing employees with additional training can boost job satisfaction. This outcome determines whether or not an organization offers training to their employees, which is beneficial to employee satisfaction with their jobs. The construct provides evidence of the correlation that exists between the indicator variables and the structures. The analysis of the reliability, which includes the overall reliability, is the first component of the construct. According to the source, the benchmark limit for composite reliability is 0.70. Because of this, the underlying construct is responsible for the composite reliability. The second component is the convergent validity, and the measure of convergent validity is the Average Variance Extracted (AVE). Since the benchmark limit value for the AVE is 0.50, this indicates that the structures were successful in achieving convergent validity. The Heterotrait Monotrait (HTMT) Ratio is the component that is utilized to perform an evaluation of the constructs’ variable validity. It has specified that the highly traditional verge values of the HTMT ratio must be less than or equal to 0.90 in order to verify the discriminant validity. Because the value of Job Satisfaction in this research analysis is significantly higher than 0.90, discriminant validity has not been achieved. The findings contribute significant new knowledge to the existing body of research by demonstrating that employee training and commitment mediate the connection between job satisfaction and job performance. Studies that have been conducted in the past on employee training have investigated the connection between employee training and worker loyalty. This study investigates the connection between training and loyalty in the workplace via the moderating influence of job satisfaction. This fills an important void that has not previously been investigated.


This research has been conducted following the research model and executed successfully. However, this research has some constraints, i.e., the respondents are from t managerial level employees of Pakistan steel mills. It might be a case that our data values can be more focused and readable if data is gathered from all executive-level employees of Pakistan steel mills. This research proves the correlation between employee training and employee commitment and the mediating impact of job satisfaction. The HR managers may use this research’s conclusions as fundamental data to establish a policy on employee training. The study can contribute to the development of Human Behavior at the Pakistan steel mills, especially in Human Resources. In supplement, this research can also be used as an experimental reference in the decision-making strategy to enhance employees’ commitment through organizations’ employee training courses. Therefore, research work can also be a reference book for potential researchers, particularly individuals in the education sector. This research is the typical forerunner in broadening the employees’ commitment argument to the education sector. It supports experimental evidence, indicating that training significantly impacts employees’ commitment to the education sector of Lahore, Pakistan. The research likewise established job satisfaction aids in transforming the impact of employees’ training on employee commitment in the sector of education in Punjab.


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Publication History

Published: January 01, 2023




Saima Sajid & Hamza Ahamd (2023). Impact of employee training on job satisfaction through mediating role of employee commitment: An empirical study of Pakistan steel mills. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(01):19-28.


© 2023 DJEMI. All rights reserved