Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations (DJEMI).

Publication History

Submitted: May 01, 2023
Accepted: May 20, 2023
Published: June 01, 2023




Dr. Ogundipe Scott (2023). The impact of paid promotions on customer satisfaction with the mediating role of co-creation of customer value and moderating role of customer loyalty. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(06):340-351.


© 2023 DJEMI. All rights reserved

The Impact of Paid Promotions on Customer Satisfaction with the mediating Role of Co-creation of Customer Value and moderating Role of Customer LoyaltyOriginal Article

Dr. Ogundipe Scott 1*

  1.  Covenant University, Nigeria; oziengbeaigheyisi@gmail.com

*             Correspondence: oziengbeaigheyisi@gmail.com

Abstract: Promotion is widely recognized as a crucial component of marketing strategies. Price promotions have been found to be effective in generating traffic and have a positive impact on brand performance in the short term. This is because brand-loyal customers become less price-sensitive due to the influence of paid promotions. Uncompensated promotional activities encompass the distribution of complimentary samples, provision of complimentary gifts, organization of sweepstakes, and facilitation of contests, among other strategies. Uncompensated promotions are frequently advocated for their potential to enhance brand equity. This research examines the impact of paid and free promotions on customer satisfaction. The primary objective of this study is to examine the impact of customer value creation on both paid and unpaid promotions in order to enhance customer satisfaction. The research will additionally examine the significance of establishing and sustaining long-term customer relationships in maintaining a stable equilibrium. A survey was administered to a sample of 580 consumers residing in New Delhi, with the intention of obtaining insights into the purchasing behavior of clothing brands. The obtained results were found to be representative of the population under study. The survey sample consisted of individuals of both genders. The data analysis was conducted using the Smart-PLS technique, an abbreviation for Partial Least Squares. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that both remunerated and non-remunerated promotional activities exerted a noteworthy influence on the degree of customer satisfaction attained by the enterprise. This achievement was attained by creating value for the customer and fostering a heightened level of customer loyalty towards the brand. The impact of paid promotion on customer satisfaction and loyalty tends to be comparatively lower when compared to that of free promotion. Enhancing customer perception of value in promotional messages can contribute to its improvement. The significance of free promotion lies not only in its ability to attract new customers, but also in its role in maintaining customer loyalty. This article would provide valuable insights for managers in India seeking to devise and cultivate effective promotional strategies aimed at enhancing customer satisfaction through both paid and unpaid promotional methods, thereby fostering sustainable competition. The article is accessible at the following location. Furthermore, the results of this study illustrate the potential for businesses to optimize their brand equity management systems by considering the relationship between sales promotion and the degree of customer satisfaction attained through the cultivation of customer value.

Keywords: paid promotions, unpaid promotions, customer loyalty


Customer satisfaction is widely regarded as the primary priority for nearly every organization. Research plays a pivotal role in comprehending the strategies for constructing, quantifying, and overseeing a valuable resource. Additionally, it is important to expand upon the collection of observations pertaining to customer satisfaction [1]. Examining the source’s top rank in developing and impacting customer satisfaction is crucial in understanding the creation of customer value [2]. Managers are provided with the capacity to ascertain the drivers that contribute to the enhancement of customer satisfaction, as well as the drivers that have a detrimental impact on performance. The present study aims to examine the relationship between a specific element of the marketing mix, namely sales promotions, and the degree of customer satisfaction [3]. The study primarily examines the mediating role of customer value creation and the enhancement of relationships between sales promotion activities and customer satisfaction. The notion of sales promotions that contribute to customer satisfaction has the potential to enhance customer value, which can be understood as the benefits received by customers in relation to the costs or sacrifices they incur. The user’s text does not contain any information to rewrite. The concept of customer value can be enhanced through the notion that sales promotions contribute to customer satisfaction. The concept of creating value for customers is widely acknowledged in the field of marketing and is considered a fundamental principle that underpins all marketing activities. Furthermore, scholarly literature recognizes the importance of value creation in the context of fostering customer satisfaction by leveraging the marketing mix. In contemporary India, there has been a discernible shift in clothing trends and styles [5]. The radical transformation can be attributed to technological advancements, a rise in household and clothing expenditures, and a shift in societal behavior. There is an observable emergence of novel clothing brands within the market, with a particular focus on women’s and men’s apparel. Paid promotions are commonly regarded as a form of incentive that can lead to cost savings or reductions in financial losses. There exists a correlation between satisfaction or dissatisfaction and price promotions [6]. The utilization of free sample promotions leads to the emergence of brand loyalty and an increase in sales outcomes. The retention rate exhibits an upward trend following the initial trial of the brand sample, indicating a potential acceleration in purchase behavior. This also suggests a higher likelihood that prospective customers who did not have the opportunity to try the sample would be inclined to directly opt for the brand [7]. This study examines the correlations between a specific component of the marketing mix, namely paid promotion, and two key variables: customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The focus of the study was specifically directed towards examining the mediating role played by customer value creation. In addition, this study investigates the impact of both paid and unpaid sales promotions on the creation of customer value with the aim of enhancing or advancing customer satisfaction [8]. This study expands upon the existing framework by conducting a comprehensive analysis of the impact of marketing communication tools on customer satisfaction. This study deviates from prior research that primarily examined the impact of marketing mix components on brand equity by introducing a mediator, namely customer value creation, which has been overlooked in existing literature.


Extensive research has been undertaken to explore various dimensions for conceptualizing and assessing customer satisfaction [9]. The marketing mix elements play a significant role in the attainment of customer satisfaction. Paid promotion, also known as cost/sacrifice value, plays a role in customer value creation and has a substantial impact on customer satisfaction. The precise impact of sales promotions on value creation has not been fully understood, leading to a gap in existing research. Additionally, while the customer marketing concept holds significant influence, the study of customer value is still in its early stages of conceptual development in India [10]. This analysis elucidates the significance of both monetary and non-monetary promotion in the process of customer value creation, ultimately leading to the establishment of customer satisfaction [11].

2.1 Paid Promotions

The utilization of paid or price promotion serves as a mechanism through which customers are able to acquire a product at a reduced cost compared to its regular price. This promotional strategy often encompasses various forms of monetary incentives, such as coupons, rebates, and discounts [12]. Paid promotions have demonstrated efficacy in terms of generating traffic and have exhibited a short-term positive impact on brand performance. This phenomenon can be attributed to the impact of paid promotions on reducing price sensitivity among brand-loyal customers, thereby enhancing overall brand performance. Based on the findings of researchers, it has been observed that customers exhibit a tendency to direct their attention towards the promotional strategies employed by a brand, subsequently shaping their purchasing behavior and engaging in regular purchases based on these patterns [13]. Based on a research study examining consumer preferences in relation to immediate gratification versus long-term benefits, it was found that consumers tend to favor paid benefits that provide immediate rewards, such as price packs and premiums, over opportunities for delayed rewards. In this context, the primary potential influence on this preference was the consideration of societal norms. It is postulated that enhancing product features does not have a detrimental impact on its other attributes, such as the provision of complimentary premium offerings and sweepstakes, which are found to be advantageous solely in terms of short-term sales augmentation [14]. Paid promotions are less effective in generating brand awareness because they primarily emphasize brand associations related to price, which leads customers to focus on the deals associated with the brands rather than the actual product offerings. Consequently, offering low prices poses challenges for the brand. Numerous analysts present their research, offering arguments against the utilization of this promotional strategy and elucidating its detrimental consequences. It is contended that Paid promotions have a negative impact on brand image. However, it is worth noting that despite these concerns, this promotional approach remains a significant instrument for attracting a substantial customer base [15]. There is a contention that a decrease in the price preference has an impact on the perceived price of a brand, ultimately influencing the overall brand equity. It has been observed that consumers tend to associate a brand with low quality when their sole information about the product is its price, leading them to make inferences about the relationship between price and quality. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as price-quality inferences [16]. Price promotions are frequently employed. Paid promotions have the potential to associate the brand with negative attributes, thereby diminishing its brand equity. Consequently, it has been suggested that such promotions tend to shift consumer focus towards the brand’s affordability rather than its inherent value, particularly when these promotional tactics are employed frequently [17].

2.2 Unpaid Promotion

Uncompensated promotional activities encompass the distribution of complimentary product samples, provision of complimentary gifts, organization of sweepstakes, and facilitation of contests, among other strategies. Frequently, unpaid promotions are advocated for their potential to enhance brand equity. The brand’s long-term brand image is enhanced through the creation of distinctive attributes for the brand [19]. Uncompensated promotional activities tend to exhibit a greater prevalence of positive characteristics. The concept of awards for brand equity creation elucidates the advantages of unpaid promotions, such as the consumer perception of gaining value, as exemplified by the “Buy One Get One Free” offer. Unpaid promotions, also known as non-monetary promotions, contribute to the long-term advancement of brand equity through the generation of differentiation. These promotions aid in the preservation of a competitive position, enhancement of product differentiation, and sustenance of brand loyalty [20]. Promotional offers encompass a variety of strategies, including bonus packs, samples, sweepstakes, and premiums, which are believed to enhance the perceived value of a product. Conversely, discounts are perceived as simply reducing the price. Consequently, these promotional tactics also influence the consumer’s reference price. Consumers perceive non-monetary promotions as advantageous, as they provide noticeable differentiation and create customer value. Furthermore, unpaid promotions are widely accepted and offer a greater range of choices compared to monetary promotions [21].

2.3 Customer Value

Previous scholarly research has extensively examined the differentiation between quality and value, yielding several overarching arguments. The concept of customer value creation is often described by consumers in terms of utility and the evaluation of what has been received in exchange for what has been given [22]. There exists a positive relationship between perceived quality and perceived value. The act of perceiving a brand name or logo has the potential to elicit favorable consumer assessments, particularly in terms of perceiving a product as offering excellent value for money or a favorable bargain (23). An increased level of brand awareness leads to a reduction in the consideration set. Similarly, there is a higher likelihood that consumers will choose to purchase natural products and exhibit a greater willingness to pay a higher price. Therefore, it can be inferred that the level of brand awareness has a direct and positive impact on the perceived value of a product or service [24]. The motivation to purchase an item and the willingness to pay a premium price can be influenced by a higher perceived quality, as observed in certain individuals. Brand loyalty has a positive impact on consumer value. According to existing research, loyal consumers possess a perception of the advantageous benefits or cost opportunities associated with a particular product or service [25].

2.4 Customer Satisfaction

In the light of previous studies define satisfaction as a general appraisal in terms of cumulative buy and consumption experiences and desire to repurchase after some time [26]. Satisfaction is also discussed by fulfillment as pleasurable satisfaction, which is detected by clients in the utilization. Customer recognition of products or services has been, for the most part, used to measure customer satisfaction. According to five emotions perceived by customers below are acceptable: Satisfaction: The things can be recognized or persevered, Content: The things convey people with a constructive and happy experience. Relieved: The things empty people’s contrary state, Novelty: The things convey people with freshness and invigoration. Surprise: The things make customers shockingly fulfilled.

H1: There is a relationship between Paid promotion and customer satisfaction.

H2: There is a relationship between unpaid promotion and customer satisfaction.

H3: There is a relationship between Customer loyalty Creation and customer satisfaction.

H4: There is a relationship between paid promotion and customer Loyalty.

H5: There is a relationship between unpaid promotion and customer Loyalty.

Figure 01: Conceptual Model



For hypotheses testing, the data was collected from a survey of 580 consumers. This empirical research is based on the product category of clothing. Consumers using any brand from this product category were considered to fill in the survey form. Data collection took place at several clothing brand stores, both male and female, aged from 15 to 70 years, in New Delhi, India. An extensive review of prior literature provided the basis for selecting the measures for the marketing communication tool, i.e., promotion, customer satisfaction and customer value creation, and customer loyalty. The respondents were asked to assess all items on five-point Likert-type scales ranging from 1(Strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree). This study measures Paid and unpaid promotions adopted and modified by scale proposed by customer value creation and customer satisfaction. Five items are used to measure Paid promotion, five items to measure unpaid promotion, six items for customer value creation, and three items for customer satisfaction. Quantitative collected data was analyzed through the Structure Equation Modeling technique. The reason behind the selection of this is that the present research is a combination of a variety of theories, so in these situations, Structure Equation Modeling is the best way to obtain results. It is also a valid and reliable technique to validate the instrument and reliability of data along with hypotheses testing. For this technique, the present research uses SmartPLS software for testing reliability, validity, factorial analysis under CFA, and at the end, hypotheses testing through bootstrap analysis by using 500 samplings. The appropriate factor loading value for valid constructs should be > 0.700. Cross-factor loading value in the PLS-SEM technique was used to check the discriminant validity.


4.1 Convergent Validity and Reliability Analysis

Starting from the first test, which is regarding the convergence of variables and items, here convergent validity concept is discussed as the initial stage for validation. This concept says that items and variables should be correlated to a certain limit which shows that researchers can integrate these different variables into one model [27]. The literature further provides its measuring tool by considering Factor Analysis and Average Variance Extracted formulation for testing the goodness of convergent validity. Next, reliability is discussed as the tool to check the consistency of data as it is tested from time to time. This present study considers two criteria such as Cronbach’s Alpha and Composite Reliability [28]. As discussed earlier that regarding the initial test of reliability and convergent validity, results are shown in Table 1. Starting from factor analysis, its criteria are that the value should be greater than 0.7, and those items which are not meet the criteria should not be considered for further analysis.

Table 01: Construct Reliability and Measurement Model Result

Latent Variables Measurement Items Loading Value Average Variance Extracted Cronbach Alpha Composite Reliability


Paid Promotions

MP1 MP2 MP3 MP4 MP5 MP6 0.862
















Unpaid Promotions



















Customer Value


















Customer Satisfaction CS1 CS2 CS3 0.921









In the present table, values of reliable items are shown, which are between 0.787 to 0.928, showing the goodness of factor analysis. Next, AVE is shown in the table for each variable [29]; as per the criteria, its value should be greater than 0.5; in the present research, all variables have good enough values to support the convergent validity of data. Lastly, two aspects of reliability are discussed Cronbach’s Alpha and Composite Reliability [30]. The composite reliability of all constructs is as MP=0.947, NMP=0.915, CV=0.946, and CS= 0.945. Showing that values are higher than 0.7 supporting the reliability statistics of data.

4.2 Discriminant Validity

The next type of validity is discriminant validity which talks about the existence of discrimination or difference between concepts or questions; simplifying it, discriminant validity talks about variables and items that should be theoretically different and have their own concept or worth in the model [31]. It is measured through Cross loading analysis and Fornell-Larcker criteria. Another check of validity is that fornell-larcker is basically the square root of each value of AVE with respect to each variable

Table 02: Discriminant Validity of Constructs

CS 0.923
CV 0.645 0.864
MP 0.704 0.768 0.865
NMP 0.531 0.697 0.468 0.826

Table 2 shows the results of the Fornell-larcker criteria; here threshold is the upper diagonal value of the table, which for the variable has its own maximum as well as higher than 0.7 [32]. Here the values are between 0.826 as a minimum for NMP and 0.923 as a maximum for CS; all remaining values are lesser than these values, which shows the goodness of the criteria.

4.3 PLS-SEM Path Analysis

Next is measuring the structure model through path algorithm analysis for the causal relationship between the model’s proposed hypotheses. Results shown in Figure 1 show the causal relationship in the inner model, while factor analysis results in the outer model [34]. The findings of analysis reveal that if other aspects persist constant, with one unit increased in monitory promotions, it’s increased customer value by 0.193. Similarly, with a change in one unit of non-monitory promotions, it will bring a 0.749 unit change in customer value.

Figure 02: PLS-SEM Path Analysis Results

The findings of analysis reveal that if other aspects persist constant, with one unit increase in monitory promotions, it increases customer satisfaction by 0.068. Similarly, with a change in one unit of non-monitory promotions, it will bring 0.346 units of change in customer satisfaction. If another aspect persists constant, with one unit increase in customer value, it increases customer satisfaction by 0.482 [35]. All positive values in path analysis represent that increasing error must be minimum. See, table 3 also supports path analysis by showing their P-value, path coefficients, and T- statistic value. The last analysis is about hypotheses testing through bootstrap analysis, which generates the P values and T statistics of data. Here the goodness criteria are that the T value should be greater than 1.96 for acceptance of the hypothesis under the probability or P value less than 0.05.

Figure 03: PLS-SEM Path Significance

Figure 3 shows the results of bootstrap analysis for the inner as well as for the outer model, but for testing the hypotheses T value of the inner model should be greater than 1.96. Here all the relationships have significant values just between MP and CS by having 0.886 values which are not up to the mark.

Hypotheses Standardized β (t)
(H1) Paid Promotion —> Customer Satisfaction 0.07 (0.89)
(H2) Unpaid Promotion —> Customer Satisfaction 0.346* (3.23)
(H3) Paid Promotion —> Customer Loyalty 0.193* (3.04)
(H4) Unpaid promotion —> Customer Loyalty 0.749** (15.76)
(H5) Customer Value            > Customer Satisfaction 0.482** (6.25)

** P < 0.05 * P < 0.01

The path coefficient between Paid promotion and customer satisfaction is .068, the positive value of the path coefficient shows that the positive association among the variables MP and CS exists. While the significance value .376 > .05 does not support our hypothesis H1 and explains that even on a large scale, Paid promotion cannot increase customer satisfaction. Path coefficient values show a weak relationship among the variables monitory promotions and customer satisfaction [36]. The path coefficient between non-monitory promotions and customer satisfaction is .346; the positive value of the path coefficient shows that the positive association between the variable NMP and CS exists [37]. The significance value is .001 which is < .05. So, results support our hypothesis H2 and explain a moderate relationship among the variables non-monitory promotions and customer satisfaction. Monitory promotions and customer value are .193, and the positive value of the path coefficient shows a positive association among the variables MP and CV. The significance value is .002, which is less than .05, so the results support our hypothesis H3. The path coefficient between non-monitory promotions and customer value is 0.749 [38]; the positive value of the path coefficient shows that a positive association between NMP and CV exists. The significance value is .000, which is less than .05 so results support our hypothesis H4 and explain that unpaid promotion can strongly impact creating value for customers [39]. Customer value creation seems to play an important role in enhancing customer satisfaction. As such, customer value creation has a positive, i.e. (.482) and significance value (.00) < .05, so results support our hypothesis H5


Companies hold the belief that assessing customer satisfaction levels represents the most effective approach for evaluating the success of a brand. Hence, it is imperative to possess a comprehensive comprehension of the key elements that contribute to and diminish customer satisfaction. This study demonstrates that the creation of customer value is a crucial factor in sales promotion activities aimed at improving customer satisfaction. Furthermore, it reveals that customer satisfaction acts as a mediator in the relationship between paid and unpaid sales promotion and its impact on customer satisfaction. Based on the results, it can be observed that the influence of paid promotion on intention to comply is estimated to be 0.07, while the impact of unpaid promotion is estimated to be 0.346. However, when considering the mediator of customer value creation, this effect is enhanced to 0.482. The impact of sales promotions on customer satisfaction levels is contingent upon the specific promotional tool utilized, as indicated by prior research. The results of the study further corroborated the notion that when customers are presented with paid promotional offers, such as price reductions, they tend to form a pessimistic perception of the product and experience diminished levels of satisfaction. Conversely, when customers are presented with uncompensated promotional incentives, such as gifts, they tend to form a favorable perception regarding the brand’s quality and its associated attributes. The significance of customer value creation is underscored in this instance by empirical research, which demonstrates that enhancing customer satisfaction can be achieved by cultivating the customer’s perception of receiving value. Hence, in order to foster a positive brand image, companies must exert effort to enhance the value proposition offered to customers through the implementation of innovative and persuasive marketing tactics. Consequently, the negligible impacts of paid promotion can be transformed into positive and statistically significant effects, while the influence of unpaid promotion on customer satisfaction is empirically strengthened. The results of this study establish a basis for various managerial implications. Firstly, this will aid business managers in Pakistan in formulating and implementing strategies for effective promotional activities. This study aims to explore various strategies that can be employed to enhance customer satisfaction through both paid and non-monetary promotional efforts, ultimately leading to the attainment of a sustainable competitive advantage. Furthermore, the results offer comprehensive understanding of organizations that are developing strategies to improve the process of brand equity management. The achievement of this objective can be facilitated by enhancing the understanding of the underlying mechanism governing the interplay between sales promotion and customer satisfaction, specifically through the avenue of customer value creation. Furthermore, this analysis offers valuable insights into the potential effects that promotional strategies can have on altering consumer perceptions in order to enhance customer satisfaction. Based on the results of this investigation, it is evident that the frequent utilization of price promotions has the capacity to diminish customer satisfaction levels, notwithstanding the prevalent adoption of such strategies in contemporary business practices aimed at enhancing immediate financial gains. Hence, it is imperative for brand managers to exercise prudence in the formulation of persuasive strategies and dissemination of persuasive promotional messages, with the aim of generating value for their clientele. The scope of the study was restricted to the brand within the clothing category exclusively. Moreover, the scope of the findings can be broadened by taking into account various product categories. Additionally, the research was carried out exclusively within a single urban area. Therefore, it is imperative for future research to examine the generalizability of the findings across diverse countries and cultures. Notwithstanding the inherent limitations, the research findings presented in this paper make a significant contribution to the existing body of literature. Moreover, they provide novel insights that can assist managers in effectively managing this vital intangible asset, thereby creating new opportunities for exploration and implementation.


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Publication History

Submitted: May 01, 2023
Accepted: May 20, 2023
Published: June 01, 2023




Dr. Ogundipe Scott (2023). The impact of paid promotions on customer satisfaction with the mediating role of co-creation of customer value and moderating role of customer loyalty. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(06):340-351.


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