Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations (DJEMI).

Publication History

Submitted: May 09, 2023
Accepted: May 20, 2023
Published: June 01, 2023




Kevin Agnihotri (2023). Effect of customer co-creation and brand loyalty with moderating role of emotional attachment. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(06):383-391.


© 2023 DJEMI. All rights reserved

Effect of Customer Co-creation and Brand Loyalty with moderating Role of Emotional AttachmentOriginal Article

Kevin Agnihotri 1*

  1. European University of Lisbon; kevinagnihotri28@gmail.com

*             Correspondence: kevinagnihotri28@gmail.com

Abstract: The establishment of a robust brand is a paramount objective for product and brand managers. There exist two significant theoretical constructs that elucidate specific determinants of consumer purchasing behavior, namely brand loyalty and customer co-creation. The concept of customer emotional attachment refers to the significant connection or relationship between a customer and a brand or its product. This connection is fostered by positive or emotional factors that may be associated with the product itself or with the individual’s personal emotions. This study has conducted an assessment of the correlation between customer co-creation and brand loyalty, while also considering the moderating influence of emotional attachment. The subject matter has been extensively examined within the body of literature pertaining to marketing. However, the specific inquiry into the significance of emotional attachment within the domain of luxury brands remains unexplored. The data has been gathered utilizing a combination of secondary and primary data collection methodologies. The empirical evidence has been gathered through the utilization of secondary data collection methods from scholarly sources, encompassing topics such as brand loyalty, emotional attachment, customer involvement, and the various factors that influence these phenomena. Research is primarily characterized by its quantitative nature, and data was gathered using structured questionnaires that were adopted through primary data collection techniques. A survey instrument was evaluated using a sample of N=150 individuals who made purchases of luxury brands. The target demographic comprises undergraduate students. The exclusion of descriptive measures such as gender and age in the questionnaire was deliberate, as the primary objective was to assess the impact of customer involvement. This study employed a questionnaire to examine the influence of customer involvement within the realm of luxury brands. The study’s results suggest that customer involvement has a notable and positive direct influence on brand loyalty. Additionally, the study highlights the significant role of emotional attachment in moderating the relationship between these two variables. Hence, customer involvement has been found to have a favorable influence on brand loyalty. This research can provide valuable insights for managers in terms of resource allocation, as they can allocate resources based on the level of customer involvement, which has a stronger effect on loyalty. Additionally, the moderation of customer emotional attachment can also influence loyalty, thereby enabling managers to establish a management framework that is both cost-efficient and effective.

Keywords: customer co-creation, emotional values, buying decision making process, brand loyalty, consumer involvement


There exist two pivotal concepts that elucidate specific determinants of consumer purchasing decisions. That is to say, the concepts of brand loyalty and involvement. The establishment of a robust brand is a paramount objective for product and brand managers. The examination of consumers’ emotional brand attachment towards brands through customer involvement encompasses the consideration of multiple factors [1]. Customers who exhibit higher levels of engagement with a specific brand are more inclined to develop a sense of commitment towards that brand, thereby leading to increased brand loyalty among these customers. Loyalty has been suggested to require a robust emotional bond as a fundamental prerequisite. According to source [2], it is evident that… This study aims to utilize a theoretical framework to examine the correlation between customer involvement and brand loyalty, while considering emotional attachment as a moderating factor. During the course of this study, the researchers will undertake an analysis of three pivotal factors, namely customer involvement, emotional attachment, and brand loyalty. The differentiation of luxury goods brands is commonly achieved through the utilization of a limited selection of “High-status Brand Names” [3]. The rationale behind this phenomenon lies in the fact that when individuals are faced with choices regarding their purchases, emotional values, such as brand involvement and affection, can hold considerable importance [4]. One reason for the ineffectiveness of this strategy pertains to its limited efficacy among customers of luxury brands. The consumption of the brand’s actual product is accompanied by emotional values that contribute to a memorable experience of ownership. The significance of preserving an emotional bond with customers as a strategy for cultivating enduring customer loyalty has garnered considerable scholarly attention in the field of marketing [5]. Nevertheless, the impact of customer engagement on brand loyalty remains unexplored in the context of customers’ emotional attachment to the brand. This study contributes to the field of luxury brand management by examining the topic of “Resource Allocation.” Specifically, it explores the arrangement of resources based on customer involvement, which has been found to have a significant influence on customer loyalty. Additionally, the study investigates the role of customer emotional attachment as a moderating factor in this relationship. The findings of this study can inform luxury brand managers in implementing cost-efficient management strategies. [6] This study also provides valuable insights for luxury brand managers regarding the strategic allocation of resources.Numerous researchers have undertaken investigations to explore the relationship between emotional brand attachment and brand loyalty. The globalization of the luxury manufacturing industry and the rapid advancement of technology have expanded customers’ access to a diverse range of competing brands, leading to intense competition among companies and brands [7]. When considering the viewpoint of the consumer, it is important to note that luxury brands possess qualities that offer a range of advantages, including social status, confirmation of identity, and a sense of belonging [8]. However, the current luxury customers find this branding strategy to be relatively ineffective. The rationale for this phenomenon lies in the fact that emotional factors play a crucial role in purchase decision-making, such as brand attachment and affection towards brands. The aforementioned emotion-related values offer the optimal and enduring experience when engaging with a particular brand [9]. Regarding customer involvement, the term “Supplier’s Innovation Process” pertains to the actions undertaken by customers when a manufacturer is engaged in the development of new products or services. According to a study [10], there are several advantages associated with customer involvement in business operations. The study suggests that businesses should engage with lead users, who are individuals that encounter needs before others in the market and benefit from providing solutions that cater to their specific requirements. The active participation of customers has the potential to enhance the efficiency of New Product Development (NPD) by reducing the time required for product launch [11].


The concept of customer emotional attachment refers to the significant connection or relationship between a customer and a brand or its product. This connection is established through positive or emotional factors that may be associated with the product itself or with the individual’s personal emotions [12]. Within the realm of marketing literature, this concept is widely regarded as both detrimental and crucial. The establishment of this bond ultimately influences consumer behavior towards the brand, thereby enhancing the efficacy of the business and the enduring value of the customer. The notion of emotional attachment was derived from “Psychology’s Attachment Theory,” originally formulated by John Bowlby in 1982. In recent discourse, scholars have engaged in a discussion regarding the practical significance of emotional attachment within the realm of marketing. It has been determined that emotional attachment, as opposed to brand attitude, serves as a superior indicator for understanding real purchase behavior, brand purchase share, and brand necessity [13]. Brand loyalty is a significant brand asset that plays a crucial role in value creation. It encompasses two key aspects: the consistent and repeated purchase of a specific brand over an extended period of time, and the development of a favorable attitude towards the brand [14]. The theory posited by several social scientists suggests that repurchasing plays a pivotal role in fostering consumer loyalty towards a particular brand. These scholars have extensively discussed and provided empirical evidence to support this notion. Similarly, it has been suggested that attitude is not a pertinent factor in assessing customer loyalty towards a brand (15). The phenomenon in which a consumer experiences a sense of connection, affinity, and enthusiasm towards a brand is commonly known as emotional attachment [16]. Based on the results of a research study, brand loyalty can be characterized as the sustained commitment to a specific brand over an extended period, whereas emotional attachment pertains to the consumer’s subjective perception of establishing a meaningful connection with said brand. As customers establish a deeper affiliation with the brand, there is an increased likelihood of them maintaining a close association with the brand. The rationale behind this phenomenon lies in the fact that the existence of the connection entity has the potential to elicit emotions of comfort, contentment, and a perception of safety when linked to the specific brand or organization [17]. The findings of a comprehensive literature review encompassing around 300 studies on brand loyalty led to the conclusion that the field has remained vibrant primarily due to its potential rather than its actual outcomes [18]. The rationale behind this is that a significant proportion of researchers encountered difficulties in distinguishing between loyalty and brand loyalty within the context of their studies. However, it has been brought to attention that there is a discrepancy regarding the concept of brand loyalty [19]. Committed customers frequently demonstrate a willingness to engage in a mutually beneficial relationship and actively invest their efforts in cultivating a sustainable association with the brand (Author, Year, p. 20). Commitment is widely recognized as a crucial element in fostering successful and enduring long-term relationships. Brand knowledge plays a significant role in facilitating business relations, serving as crucial informational cues that customers utilize to assess the credibility of a brand or business and the perceived quality of its products when choosing among multiple brands (21). Favorable business associations that are distinctive in nature encourage their customers to develop trust in the brand, believing that the brand will fulfill their expectations by delivering on its promises. This, in turn, leads to the establishment of customer loyalty and satisfaction. When consumers perceive a brand as reliable, they are more inclined to enhance their emotional trust in that brand [22]. As the luxury market becomes increasingly competitive, the proliferation of brands and the growing number of affluent customers have resulted in a decline in brand loyalty. Consequently, relying solely on brand image to satisfy and retain customers is not a prudent decision for managers [23]. In an alternative approach, the luxury brand is embracing the notion of cultivating robust customer-brand relationships by fostering emotional engagement and attachment to their brands, thereby fostering unparalleled brand loyalty. The research objective of this study is to investigate the influence of Customer Involvement on Brand Loyalty, with Emotional Attachment serving as a moderating factor [24].From a marketing perspective, the establishment of brand loyalty yields enduring advantages and fosters a robust bond between the organization and the customer. Brand loyalty encompasses various factors from the perspective of consumers [25]. Brand loyalty is not solely influenced by the product itself, but also by various other factors such as pricing, environment, social benefits, and brand name [26]. Brand loyalty pertains to the act of repeatedly purchasing a specific brand or product. The repurchase behavior of consumers is indicative of the product’s strength. The positive emotions or attitudes that establish a strong connection between the consumer and the company are referred to as binding factors. A study conducted in Nigeria on the telecommunication industry reveals that sales promotions exert a favorable influence on brand loyalty [27]. The financial resources of individuals significantly influence their inclination towards promotional products or services. Companies that are highly competitive in the market employ sales promotional techniques as a means to gain a competitive edge and attract customers. Sales promotion is widely recognized as having a substantial impact on brand loyalty within the corporate sector [28]. The pursuit of enhanced profitability has led banks to recognize customer loyalty as a significant phenomenon. The strategic approach of relationship marketing involves the establishment of customer loyalty through the cultivation of trust and commitment. Martínez identified customer loyalty as a significant concept within the field of marketing, emphasizing its association with organizational profitability. Nevertheless, the research findings indicate that satisfaction exerts a comparatively lesser influence on loyalty within industries that are more financially rewarding. The user’s text is not sufficient to rewrite it in an academic manner. Please provide more The existing body of literature examines the concept of customer loyalty within the banking industry, emphasizing its development over time and its crucial role in ensuring the long-term sustainability of organizations. The literature also emphasizes the importance of customer loyalty, which can be attained through the effective utilization of customer relationship marketing strategies and the provision of superior service quality. Brand loyalty is a pivotal concept within the field of marketing. This concept is also presented in the field of brand management and academic research papers. The effective management of brand loyalty has been a prominent concern for numerous organizations. The study aims to examine the correlation between brand loyalty and emotional attachment by exploring the role of customer involvement. The sub-objectives of this study entail investigating the direct correlation between Customer Involvement and brand loyalty, as well as determining the relationship between customer involvement and brand loyalty when emotional attachment is moderated. The data collection for this study will be conducted through a cross-sectional study design. This type of research involves the “analysis of the data collected from the population at one specific point in time.” The questionnaire will be the survey methodology that will be used in the research.


Figure 01: Theoretical Framework

The above-drawn model shows the conceptual framework for this research. As we can see, customer involvement is the independent variable, and it has an impact on brand loyalty which is the dependent variable. There is a moderating variable of emotional attachment that links both customer involvement and brand loyalty. This research provides new insights about the impact as well as the relationship of customer involvement with brand loyalty. While emotional attachment has an impact on the relationship between customer brand loyalty and customer involvement. The bases of framework hypotheses for the present study are:

H1: There is a direct impact of Customer Involvement on brand loyalty.

Ho: There is no direct impact of Customer Involvement on brand loyalty.

H2: There is an impact of customer involvement on brand loyalty in the presence of moderation of emotional attachment.

Ho: There is no impact of customer involvement on brand loyalty in the presence  of moderation of emotional attachment.


Research is basically quantitative in its nature, and data was collected through Structured adopted questionnaires. A questionnaire was tested from a sample of N=176 customers who purchased luxury brands. Customers would be undergraduate students. The questionnaire excludes descriptive measures like gender and age because main focus was to measure the effect of customer involvement. N=176 questionnaires were distributed among customers who used luxury brands. The full-use questionnaire was N=165, which shows the response rate was more than 95% a valid response rate. SPSS and AMOS are used to analyze and test the hypothesis of the framework developed for the research. At the same time, AMOS is used to check factor loading values for each factor of each variable. The software SPSS considered for the sake of data analysis; it is a widely used program for statistical analysis in social science and also used by market researchers, health researchers, and survey companies.”


AMOS tells factor loading values all 3 variables are there in Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) shown in (Fig-2); this shows the goodness of fit of constraints and its elements as well. As we can see, factor loading values are greater than 0.4, which shows the elements are strongly related to that constraint. Also, the values of RMR is also <0.5, and GFI, AGFI <1, which shows the goodness of fit index as shown in (Table 1).

Table 01: Goodness Index

Default model .071 .592 .519 .502
Saturated model .000 1.000
Independence model .332 .168 .104 .156

Coming toward testing the hypothesis, first of all, check the reliability of the data, which is shown in (Table 2) as we can see, Cronbach’s Alpha is >0.7, which shows the reliability of the data [30]. Now to test the hypothesis, use Moderation Regression Analysis for the test study done factor analysis of data by Graph to check factor reliability of customer involvement, emotional attachment, and brand loyalty shown in (Graph 1). This shows that the factors used to measure each variable is good enough.

Table 02: Reliability of Data

Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.949 27

Table 3 provides the effect of Moderating Variable on the Dependent Variable. Here we see some values which support our data and are useful for the acceptance and rejection of the hypothesis. Durbin-Watson is also good near 2, which shows no autocorrelation with variables. Sig is <0.05, and F change is also having a significant value before and after mediation and also has a positive change which supports our H2. After that value of R square increases from .647 this shows (change predicted without mediation) to .746 shows (change predicted after mediation) which shows two Points first support H1 that there is a direct impact of customer involvement on brand loyalty by .647 and second is that positive change in value while adding moderation effect of emotional attachment on the relation of Customer involvement and brand loyalty valued .746, which supports H2. This shows that moderation exists.

Table 03: Model Summary








Adjusted d R Square Std. The error in the Estimate Change Statistics  

Durbin- Watson


Square Change







Sig. F Change
1 .804


.647 .642 .36833 .647 122.836 1 67 .000
2 .864


.746 .739 .31462 .099 25.827 1 66 .000 1.890

Now coming toward the ANOVA table here, we see the F value, which met the threshold condition that the value should be greater than 5. In both conditions, the value is greater than 5 (Table 4), and also values are significant.

Table 04: Sig. of ANOVA Test

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.


Regression 16.664 1 16.664 122.836 .000a
Residual 9.089 67 .136
Total 25.754 68


Regression 19.221 2 9.610 97.091 .000b
Residual 6.533 66 .099
Total 25.754 68

For Multi-collinearity, use the coefficient table (Table 5). Multi-collinearity is measured by Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) and Tolerance Value, which measures the concept of collinearity statistics between variables in the specific regression model. Variance, Inflation Factor value, should be less than 5; here value for both without and with mediation is less than 5, so the condition is satisfied. Then t value should be greater than 1.96. Here the value is also supporting both hypotheses of direct impact and also for moderation impact.

Table 05: Multi-collinearity and Coefficients

Model Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF


Customer Involvement 1.000 1.000


Customer Involvement .434 2.306
Emotional Attachment .434 2.306

Beta value shows how much the impact of moderation; here in our research, before the moderation value, 0.433 means 1 unit change in Brand Loyalty is predicted by 0.433 units by customer involvement here also support H1. But after the moderation value goes to 0.485 means 48.5%, the impact is of moderation, so H2 also accepted that there is an impact of moderation of Emotional Attachment. To check the skewness in data, use the histogram plot shown in (Graph 2) which shows data is normally skewed. This also supports our data. In the context of the literature pertaining to marketing, this is also considered to be a terrible and vital concept. This bond eventually has an effect on the behavior of consumers towards the brand, which in turn raises the effectiveness of the business and the customer’s long-lasting value. The concept of emotional attachment was taken from “Psychology’s Attachment Theory,” which was initially developed by John Bowlby in 1982. Recently, the applied value of emotional attachment in the context of marketing has been discussed, and it was found that emotional attachment, rather than brand attitude, is the best interpreter for actual purchase, brand purchase share, and brand need [13]. One of the brand assets that contribute to the creation of value is brand loyalty, which can be defined as both a consistent pattern of purchase of a particular brand over the course of time in the form of repurchase and a positive attitude towards a brand or brand [14]. Repurchasing could be the central point for capturing the consumer’s loyalty to the brand of interest, according to a number of social scientists who have discussed and demonstrated this theory. Along the same lines, it was also recommended that attitude is not a relevant tool for determining customer loyalty to a brand [15]. A consumer’s sensation of being connected, liking, and passionate about a brand is referred to as emotional attachment [16]. According to the findings of a research study, brand loyalty is defined as the continuation of a long-term relationship with any given brand, while emotional attachment refers to the consumer’s perception of having such a connection. As customers develop a stronger connection with the brand, it is more likely that they will maintain close proximity to the brand. The reason for this is that the presence of the connection object can evoke feelings of ease, happiness, and a sense of security when associated with that particular brand or organization [17]. A study concluded, following a literature review of approximately 300 studies on brand loyalty, that “the area has been kept active more because of promise than result [18]”. The reason for this is that the majority of researchers were unable to differentiate between loyalty and brand loyalty in their studies. In the context of luxurious brands, the results obtained from a selected data sample show that there is a moderate impact of emotional attachment, but the analysis also supports the idea that there is a direct impact of customer involvement on brand loyalty. Customers of luxurious brands develop an emotional attachment to the brand, which ultimately has an effect on the customer’s brand loyalty [31]. In the context of luxurious brands, the results also demonstrate that there is a direct impact of customer involvement on brand loyalty (Hypothesis 1) [32]. The findings support the second hypothesis, which postulated that an emotional attachment would significantly moderate the effect of customer involvement on brand loyalty. According to the findings of the extended study, a relationship and an autocorrelation did not exist between the variables, indicating that the model and the data are both accurate [33]. Following the completion of the investigation, the findings have been interpreted to suggest that there are no controlled variables utilized in the investigation, such as age or gender [34]. It is therefore recommended that demographic variables be utilized in subsequent studies as controlled variables. Despite this, there are some phenomena that are difficult to minimize that subjectively seem to be the most likely candidates [35]. This study, like other research, has a few caveats or restrictions attached to it.


The impact of customer engagement on brand loyalty has been extensively examined in the field of marketing. Nevertheless, the role of emotional attachment in luxury brands has not yet been thoroughly investigated. This study builds upon existing literature pertaining to customer involvement, emotional attachment, and brand loyalty. Questionnaire on Customer Involvement in Luxury Brands. Based on the research findings, it can be observed that emotional attachment functions as a moderator in the association between customer involvement and brand loyalty, thereby indicating that customer involvement has a direct impact on brand loyalty. The act of customers actively engaging with a brand enhances their level of loyalty. This study can provide valuable insights for managers in the field of “Resource Allocation” by facilitating the organization of resources based on customer engagement levels, which have a significant influence on customer loyalty. Furthermore, the study acknowledges that customer emotional attachment plays a moderating role in this relationship, thereby enabling managers to develop cost-effective management strategies. This facilitates the development of a management structure that optimizes cost-effectiveness.


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Publication History

Submitted: May 09, 2023
Accepted: May 20, 2023
Published: June 01, 2023




Kevin Agnihotri (2023). Effect of customer co-creation and brand loyalty with moderating role of emotional attachment. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(06):383-391.


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