Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations (DJEMI).

Publication History

Submitted: April 11, 2023
Accepted: May 05, 2023
Published: August 01, 2023

Identification

D-0074

Citation

Hamza Ilyas, Md Hassan Mohsin and Muhammad Ibrar (2023). A Green Human Resource Management Including Approach for The Construction Industries. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(08):481-489.

Copyright

© 2023 DJEMI. All rights reserved

A Green Human Resource Management Including Approach for The Construction IndustriesReview Article

Hamza Ilyas 1,  MD Hassan Mohsin 2, Muhammad Ibrar 3*

  1. University of Lahore, Pakistan; Ilyas20@gmail.com
  2. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh; hassanmdm@outlook.com
  3. Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan; ibrar20011@gmail.com

*             Correspondence: Muhammad.ibrar20011@gmail.com

Abstract: Nowadays, businesses are dealing with sustainability challenges more than ever, thanks to rising public consciousness of sustainability concerns and increasing scrutiny from authorities alongside other parties. Employing a combined approach that incorporates meta-synthesis, Delphi, and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques, this article emphasizes environmentally operation. Thirty-eight codes were recovered as a consequence of the first phase’s thorough analysis of the green human resources management (GHRM) literary works, which was done using the meta-synthesis method. Following that, two rounds of the Delphi technique are used to gather input from an audience of 15 industry specialists in order to adapt and personalize the codes according to the requirements of the construction sector, resulting in 21 codes in 7 categories. Finally, data from 33 building businesses were gathered in order to evaluate the suggested model, and using SEM, 15 parameters in 5 categories are given. The results showed that only five of the nine major GHRM components—green training, green performance management, green rewards, green-based employee empowerment, and green recruitment and selection—have significant and beneficial relationships with GHRM. The article also offers some managerial advice as well as some recommendations for the future.

Keywords: green human resource management, sustainability, construction companies

  1. INTRODUCTION

Businesses are required to give greater consideration to sustainability concerns as a result of the tremendous effects that climate change and warming temperatures have had in the past decade on human beings [1, 2]. Additionally, businesses are being driven to adopt environmentally responsible operations due to the increasing demand from a variety of customers, including customers, administrations, and environmental activists [3]. To be competitive and endure over the long run, businesses must improve their capacity to handle consumer ecological issues [4-6]. Including environmental concerns in business strategy can boost an organization’s competitive edge and promote sustainable development [7-9]. A environmentally friendly human resource management (HRM) strategy that guarantees the long-term success of businesses and could be accomplished through implementing new environmentally friendly approaches and utilizing creative approaches and the human resource assets of businesses [10] addresses sustainability-related shortcomings and promotes green enterprises. To address problems with the environment, nevertheless, businesses require professional staff members that are passionate, knowledgeable, and skilled. The discipline of GHRM, or green human resource management, is being driven by researchers, and combining green management and HRM has been compared to a “green revolution” based on conventional HRM principles [11–14]. HRM is necessary for efficient environmental management and competitiveness [15]. GHRM is defined in HRM approaches, such as green learning, green performance, and compensation for green services [16]. GHRM is a strategy to broaden the usage of HRM software to reduce potential harm from a company’s operations in all business processes [17]. The employees’ environmental consciousness will enhance businesses’ sustainability [18]. To achieve environmental sustainability, GHRM methods have an impact on employees’ environmentally friendly behavior [19]. Implementing GHRM procedures can guarantee the success of an organization’s environmental performance, which plays a crucial part in fostering organizational sustainability [20]. Through a variety of practices in remuneration, recruitment, rewards, and exit policies, GHRM practices serve as a strategy for the organization’s sustainable development objectives [21]. An innovative change, becoming green demands commitment from both management and employees. It happens not just through GHRM-affected procedures but also through increased green behavior among employees of an organization [22]. Employing capable, educated, and skilled workers is crucial for achieving sustained performance through GHRM, according to numerous academicians and practitioners in recent years [23]. A survey of the appropriate sources revealed that both services and manufacturing businesses employ GHRM to improve sustainability and environmental outcomes. The utilization of innovative thinking and environmentally conscious actions in Malaysian restaurants has been studied by various researchers. To quantify the efficacy of green construction management, combined the analysis of data envelopes (DEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Considering it uses more than 40% of all worldwide power and generates higher than forty percent of overall worldwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the building industry is well known for possessing significant consequences for the environment [24]. Nevertheless, there is an absence of studies regarding the most effective GHRM programs for building companies [25]. Building-related environmental harm may be the outcome of non-green human behaviors that worsen our planet. By extending the reach of GHRM practices, organizations can lessen environmental deterioration [26]. Due to the environmental effects of their construction activities, construction businesses have long been on the front lines [27]. In order to tackle environmental problems, this encourages them to improve their environmental behaviors. As a result, the construction industry needs to pay consideration to GHRM. In order to maintain fair possibilities for both present and future generations to efficiently utilise natural resources, this research develops a framework for GHRM in the sector of building.

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW

The GHRM research from 2015 to 2023 is thoroughly examined using the a systematic review approach. Despite the fact that [24] first used GHRM-related principles in its building business, there were very few publications published around 2011. In order to collect the necessary data, the year 2018 was chosen as the beginning of the project, while the year 2023 was chosen as the ending. The most current research findings have been included in this time frame due to the rise in papers that have covered this crucial subject. The first specialized HRM assessment was carried out by [25] at the time the HRM concept was created. They emphasized the crucial part human resources management operations play in helping top businesses adopt ecological initiatives and regulations. Nevertheless, there are now more work in this sector than ever before. Based on the descriptions provided earlier by different writers, GHRM is comprised of conventional human resources operations (such as job appraisal, employment, education, efficiency, and incentives measuring), with an emphasis on operational and environmental goals. [26]. [27] examined the HR performance in the Indian electronic services industry while concentrating on the environmental parameters. [28] examined how GHRM affected 309 operating small and medium-sized businesses. According to the findings, there is a significant link between GHRM and environmental sustainability. [29] examined 70 studies from the GHRM research published between 2007 and 2019 and discovered that GHRM significantly affects both individual and organisational ecological outcomes. Additionally, developing countries have shown a greater interest in GHRM analysis. In the Sri Lankan tourism industry, [30] discovered GHRM methods that had an effect on environmental management. The outcomes demonstrated that their ecological management system’s most crucial component is green employment.

  1. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The goal of the current study is to provide a framework for the GHRM influencing elements in the building sector. This work developed a framework for GHRM in the construction business across three stages using a combination of methods that included meta-synthesis, Delphi, and SEM methodologies, as illustrated in Figure 1. A comprehensive research analysis using the a systematic review approach was carried out in the first part of the study to determine the components that contribute to GHRM. The Delphi approach and the original GHRM framework for the building company were provided in the subsequent stage in order to implement and adapt GHRM elements for the building services sector. SEM approaches based on partial least squares (PLS) were utilized in the final phase of verifying the basic model. The steps for each phase are described below. The three stages of this investigation are simply explained in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Phases of this study

3.1 Utilizing the Meta-synthesis Methodology to Determine GHRM Factors

Researchers discovered GHRM elements from the appropriate research between 2018 and 2023 employing the preliminary phase’s seven steps of the Sandelowski and Barroso (2016) model. The section that follows lists the steps of the a systematic review approach: Creating the main subject of research is the initial stage through the a meta-analysis process; Step 2: Conducting a methodical investigation of the material; Step 3: Assessing and choosing the appropriate documents. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool (CASP) is a tool designed to assess the standard of the primary reading of the qualitative investigation. The articles were initially assessed and appraised using the ten criteria/questions listed in Table 3 for evaluation. Each criterion and topic had an aggregate value of five. Then, the “average” of the ratings that every piece obtained was determined appropriately, and the works whose sum of their evaluations was less than 25 were eliminated; step 4, where we employed an investigation issue to obtain the pertinent standards from the chosen papers; step 5 in which we analyzed and synthesized the results of the qualitative study. It’s time to examine, combine ideas, and categorise the codes that have been determined following the necessary information have been extracted. Step 6 is when the credibility and internal dependability of the research’s findings are evaluated. Researchers and business professionals evaluated the accuracy of the study and categorization methodology. Cohen’s Kappa statistic was utilized to evaluate the computerization procedure’s reliability within itself. Step 7, reporting the results.

3.2 Employing the Delphi technique to implement and modify the determined GHRM elements for the building sector

In this phase, we conducted two rounds of interviews with 15 industry experts with a minimum of 10 years of relevant experience using GHRM principles. Round 1. Ranking extracted parameters’ applicability to the construction sector from 1 to 10 according to the perspectives of industry experts: This round’s goal is to get rid of any codes that don’t apply to construction-related activities or are just marginally applicable. The professionals were first provided an outline of the characteristics that had been retrieved. The specialists were subsequently prompted to choose features that are appropriate for the sector. The total score for each code—which corresponds to the total number of professional votes—was then determined. Codes whose total votes fell below the average number of votes cast by professionals were removed from consideration. Second round Ranking every criterion’s importance according to the opinions of professionals in the field using the numbers 1 through 5. The specialists were asked to describe the degree of necessity and significance of the remaining codes that could help achieve the study objectives in this session.

3.3 Validating proposed model using SEM method

Finally, we used a second-order confirmation factor analysis and SEM to evaluate the suggested framework. To this goal, we conducted a 5 point rating system assessment of 228 executives from 32 Bangladeshi construction enterprises. Then, by carrying out the subsequent processes, we provided the final GHRM model for the construction business. The veracity and dependability of the findings are assessed to ensure that SEM can be implemented in our framework in an efficient manner. Two prerequisites for the converging coherence and concept association are composites dependability (CR 0.7) and standard variation extraction (AVE 0.5). Convergent validity will be utilized for assessing the differences between a construct’s measurement and the standard deviation from various concepts. The link between the latent variables and their associations is assessed using the structural framework. In order to determine the t values, we used a ramping process with a resampling rate of 500 to assess the association between the latent variables. The association between the two concepts will be substantial if the t value is greater than |1.96|.

  1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Throughout the last ten years (2018 to 2023), we concentrated on articles produced in English. The books, theses, and papers from the conference sessions were excluded from the statistically significant sample of the present research. The investigation’s primary search phrases were “green human resource management,” “green human resource management,” “societal variables,” “sustainable” practices,” “green training,” and “environmental HRM.” 39 papers are chosen for additional analysis after the papers were assessed using the CASP. The approach of screening publications was centred on their title, intangible, technique, and entire text of documents, as shown in Figure 2. We employed inquiry questions in order to extract characters from the articles after choosing the appropriate articles. 39 papers were chosen for assessment, and from these 44 fundamental numbers, 9 principles were derived. We used the perspectives of two professionals to assess the gathered algorithms. Two specialists evaluated the investigation’s procedures by answering ten inquiries on an assessment scale with four options (1=weak, 2=middle, 3=good, and 4=excellent). Cohen’s kappa coefficient was then determined using the SPSS-26 program, as illustrated in Table 1. The Cohen’s kappa coefficient, which measures the dependability of a study’s findings, is 0.706.

Figure 2: Procedure of filtering papers was based on their title, abstract, methodology, and the full content of papers

Figure 2: Procedure of filtering papers was based on their title, abstract, methodology, and the full content of papers

 

Table 1: Contingency coefficient among experts

 

To compare GHRM standards with the actions of the construction business, the Delphi method is employed in two cycles. Round 1: In this phase, characters with a vote total of less than 8.71 were removed from consideration. As we observe, the C14, C21, C24, C25, C32, C33, C34, C41, C45, C46, C71, C72, C73, and C93 designations were removed from the list in the first phase because they were incompatible with the operations of the building sector. The 24 leftover codes were used to start the subsequent phase.

Round 2: In the second round, professionals have questioned what extent to which the 24 codes were important and necessary for accomplishing the GHRM goals, which in turn may result in excellent ecological sustainability. The outcomes are then given after collecting the responses to the questionnaires from every analyst. The second round’s goal was to pinpoint the crucial key codes where the experts differed slightly. The third step involved removing 3 codes for which there was substantial divergence across the professionals in the field. The balance of 21 codes were then subjected to additional study. All CR values in the measurement model are higher than 0.7, and AVE values are higher than 0.5. This shows that the questionnaire’s convergent reliability is adequate and that all of the numbers in the dominant diagonal are higher than the numbers in the major diagonally’s base. This shows that the questionnaire instrument’s inconsistent reliability is adequate. We employed the factor loading in the PLS approach to assessing the validity of the survey questionnaire as well as to the appropriate Cronbach’s alpha for this research. The findings indicated that the questionnaire instrument’s consistency is adequate, with indices of coefficient loading across measurements and related constructs exceeding 0.4. Building model: After obtaining satisfactory outcomes for the assessment of accuracy and validity, the structural framework is used to investigate the connections between the latent variables and their relationships. Two dimensions, such as green organizational culture (C1) and green involvement (C3), have t coefficients that are less than 1.96, indicating that there is no significant association between them. With the exception of the two previously identified concepts, all other first and second-ordered concepts have t coefficients that are greater than 1.96, showing a substantial link between these two categories of constructs. This result is consistent with [31–33]. The study of the data showed a strong and favorable association between GHRM and green performance management. Employees may be compelled to perform better in terms of the environment if green criteria are made clear and prioritized in performance evaluations. Additionally, one of the elements driving ongoing environmental performance development is giving regular feedback. These results are consistent with [34–36]. Employees can be guided via green performance and appraisal to attain desired environmental performance. Regular feedback will improve staff members’ environmental knowledge and abilities, which will significantly improve environmental performance. [37-39].

  1. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

Housing is one of the most critical concerns for people and governments in emerging nations like Bangladesh. Because housing is one of a person’s basic requirements, the construction sector helps to provide fair conditions for that to happen. On the other hand, the authors examined the existing situation of the building industry in terms of environmental difficulties and provided some useful suggestions to reach the optimal circumstances because construction industry managers were unfamiliar with environmental issues. Given the significant significance that human resources play in this sector, presenting a GHRM model for the construction sector was taken into consideration for this study. In this work, a GHRM model for the construction sector was designed and tested using a hybrid method with three phases. An detailed review of the relevant GHRM literature was undertaken using the meta-synthesis approach in the first phase. As a result, the original model for green supply chain management principles and codes was created in three levels, with 38 indications and 9 components. The Delphi approach was employed in the second phase to adjust and modify the basic model to the nature of the activities of the investigated industry. In total, 2 concepts and 17 codes were eliminated from the original model process throughout the Delphi method’s two rounds of repetition. The third phase then started with 7 concepts and 21 remaining codes. In this phase, a three-level model of GHRM in the construction industry is created using the SEM approach. It has five primary components. It suggests that in order to achieve sustainability, HR managers in the construction industry should concentrate on green hiring and selection, green performance management, green rewards, green-based employee empowerment, and green training. Despite its limitations, this study—the first to examine GHRM in the construction sector—can significantly contribute to the long-term viability of Bangladesh construction firms. Many of the findings in the current study also reveal intriguing inconsistencies with the body of knowledge. For instance, this study’s findings showed that GHRM in the construction industry is not significantly impacted by green organizational culture. In order to remove as many obstacles to sustainable building as feasible, it is necessary to do future research in this area in other emerging or developed nations and compare the results with those of the current study. Apart from its conceptual impact, the current study has a number of managerial ramifications that can assist ecological policymakers in achieving environmentally sustainable success in their organizations. The most important information for building business executives can be found in this area. The management of construction firms argues that there is a lack of understanding and awareness of environmental issues in the sector. In simple terms, executives of construction companies do not know how or where to begin implementing GHRM principles when they desire to do so. From a practical standpoint, construction company managers can use the model described in this study as a road map to improve their organizations’ environmental sustainability performance. The final recommended model identifies the crucial components of GHRM practices in the construction sector, including green hiring and selection, green performance management, green rewards, green-based employee empowerment, and green training. In order to apply GHRM practices and achieve the best results, managers can choose which domains to devote resources to using the model that has been provided. The findings of this research showed that the “green reward” is the most effective component of GHRM. It is suggested that managers of construction companies encourage staff to perform better in terms of going green or offer creative environmental ideas. The second successful GHRM factor identified by the model was “green performance management”. As a result, managers of construction businesses can encourage better environmental performance among their workforce by incorporating green performance evaluation criteria and providing regular feedback. According to reports, Bangladesh’s construction sector has little understanding and awareness of environmental issues. As a result, government officials should give sustainability concerns in the sector top priority by creating technology and possibilities for environmentally friendly education. It is suggested to invite some renowned specialists to instruct workers about ecological issues. There are several restrictions even though the primary objective of this article was successfully accomplished and the first GHRM model for the construction industry was given. In this regard, the use of cross-sectional data to assess and test the suggested model is the main constraint of the current investigation and the cause of the following limitation. Since the data for this study were gathered over time, it was not possible to access the objective data. For instance, there were no longitudinal data available in the current study to assess the results of green training or green rewards in the construction industry. Because no study of the outcomes of doing green training has been done thus far, the data mainly reflect managers’ assessments of these outcomes. Consequently is advised that in future studies, longitudinal and multi-sectional information be employed, if at all achievable, to test the recommended paradigm.

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Publication History

Submitted: April 11, 2023
Accepted: May 05, 2023
Published: August 01, 2023

Identification

D-0074

Citation

Hamza Ilyas, Md Hassan Mohsin and Muhammad Ibrar (2023). A Green Human Resource Management Including Approach for The Construction Industries. Dinkum Journal of Economics and Managerial Innovations, 2(08):481-489.

Copyright

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