Dinkum Journal of Natural & Scientific Innovations (DJNSI)

Publication History

Submitted: August 04, 2023
Accepted: August 20, 2023
Published: September 01, 2023




Muhammad Rizwan, Asim Masood, Fatima Zaheer, Abdul Saboor, Hurairah Ejaz & Kamran Afzal. China’ Big Agri-Product Consumption Market: How Pakistan can access it?. Dinkum Journal of Natural & Scientific Innovations, 2(09):527-530.


© 2023 DJNSI. All rights reserved

China’ Big Agri-Product Consumption Market: How Pakistan can access it?Review Article

Muhammad Rizwan 1*, Asim Masood 2, Fatima Zaheer 3, Abdul Saboor 4, Hurairah Ejaz 5, Kamran Afzal 6

  1. Agronomy Department, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan; muhammadrizwan3101@gmail.com
  2. Institute of Food and Nutrition Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan; asimmasood71@yahoo.com
  3. Institute of Food and Nutrition Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  4. Dean; Social Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi Pakistan; drabdul.saboor@uaar.edu
  5. Agronomy Department, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Harri304@gmail.com
  6. Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University Russia; Kamranafzalofficial1@gmail.com

*             Correspondence: muhammadrizwan3101@gmail.com

Abstract: Pakistan is an Agriculture land with multiple natural resources. Agriculture sector contributes 24% in the country’s GDP but, from a decade Pakistan’s Agriculture export zone faced different problems. China is a strong strategic partner of Pakistan, and it relies on a heavy Agriculture import to fulfill its people need. For that reason, China can be a major export market for Pakistani producers but, there are certain limitations in Pakistan’s export sector from China’s view. This research paper will provide analysis on present problems to Agriculture exports of Pakistan i.e., sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards, traceability, quality control issues, etc. The study will also include strategic collaboration between both partners in term of improvement of Agriculture trade. Possible recommendations of all challenges will be provided by experts.

Keywords: Pakistan, China, agriculture, export, market


China and Pakistan have huge potential for agricultural trade. Since Pakistan produces a variety of valuable agricultural products, China, as one of the world’s largest importers of agricultural products, offers Pakistani exporters access to an open market. Since China hold to strict sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards, compliance with these requirements is critical for agricultural exports to China. Pakistani exporters must ensure that their products comply with Chinese SPS regulations to gain access to the Chinese market. Pakistan is known for its export commodities such as rice, cotton, fruits and vegetables, while China has a huge demand for these products. This gives Pakistan the opportunity to meet China’s agricultural needs and increase its export earnings. Maintaining consistent quality and providing traceability for agricultural products is essential to build trust and credibility with Chinese buyers. Therefore, Pakistan must invest in quality control and traceability systems to meet China’s expectations and gain access to this market. This study aims to review the main challenges i.e., quality assurance, SPS standards and strategic collaboration in connection with agricultural trade between the two countries.


Growing demand for agricultural products in China, driven by population growth and changing food habits, provides countries like Pakistan with significant opportunities to enter this lucrative market. This literature review aims to summarize existing research and understanding of China’s agricultural consumption market, as well as the strategies and challenges Pakistan may face in accessing it.

2.1 China’s Agri Product Consumption Market:

China’s role as a major consumer of agricultural products is well documented. (Zhang et al., 2020) highlight China’s transition from a net exporter to a net importer of agricultural commodities due to urbanization, rising incomes, and dietary changes. The rapid growth in demand for high-quality diversified agricultural products highlights the potential of exporting countries.

2.2 Export Potential for Pakistan:

A study by (Khan & Iqbal, 2019) highlights Pakistan’s potential to export rice, fruits and textiles to China’s agricultural market due to their geographic proximity and complementary seasonal production patterns. The Pakistani port of Gwadar, a key component of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), attaches strategic importance to their trade relationship.

2.3 Trade Policies and Challenges:

Trade policy plays a key role in shaping access to foreign markets (Ahmad & Siddiqui, 2018), emphasize that Pakistan needs to effectively overcome China’s tariff and non-tariff barriers. The China Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) offer opportunities for Pakistan to align its trade policy and standards with China.

2.4 Successful Market Access Strategies:

Case studies from other countries shed light on effective strategies. For example, fruit exports from Thailand to China (Charoenratana et al., 2017).  Demonstrate the importance of product diversification, quality improvement and the use of bilateral agreements. Pakistan could learn from these strategies to adapt its approach.

2.5 Quality Standards and Certifications:

Ensuring that China’s strict quality and safety standards are met is critical (Mahmood et al., 2019) emphasize that Pakistan needs to improve its agricultural processing and storage infrastructure to meet these requirements. Establishing mutual recognition of certificates can speed up market access.

2.6 Bilateral Cooperation and Agreements:

The joint efforts of China and Pakistan, including the Long-Term Plan under CPEC (Government of Pakistan, 2017), provide a framework for agricultural trade. The China-Pakistan Free Trade Agreement (CPFTA), Phase II, which covers more agricultural products, reflects growing economic ties.

2.7 Consumer Preferences and Cultural Adaptation:

Cultural nuances significantly influence consumer preferences, (Wang et al., 2018) highlight the role of trust and authenticity in the choice of agricultural products by Chinese consumers. Pakistani exporters could explore ways to meet these preferences while maintaining their cultural identity.

2.8 Infrastructure and Logistics Challenges:

Efficient supply chains are critical. China’s Belt and Road Initiative offers potential opportunities for infrastructure development (Yu et al., 2018). Pakistan’s focus on improving transportation, storage and communications could boost its competitiveness.


3.1 Challenges Faced by Foreign Exporters Trying to Meet Chinese SPS Standards:

Chinese SPS standards are often more stringent than international standards, making it difficult for foreign exporters to meet these increased requirements. Mismatches between Chinese and exporting SPS standards create confusion and complexity, requiring exporters to navigate different regulations. Foreign exporters may lack the technical expertise or infrastructure required to comply with China’s stringent testing and inspection protocols. Compliance with Chinese SPS standards requires extensive documentation, including certificates of origin, health certificates, and traceability records, which adds to the administrative burden.

3.2 Adaptation Strategies by Successful Exporters:

Exporters receive the necessary certificates and accreditations, recognized by the Chinese authorities, confirming compliance with SPS standards. Implementing robust traceability systems helps successful exporters trace goods throughout the supply chain, ensuring transparency and accountability. Collaborating with local distributors, partners, or third-party test labs in China helps exporters follow the map regulatory challenges effectively. Exporters establish strict quality control protocols to continuously monitor and evaluate products against Chinese SPS standards.

3.3 China’s Technological Advancements and Expertise in Agriculture can play a significant role in enhancing Pakistan’s export capabilities in several ways:

China’s experience in introducing modern farming practices such as precision farming, efficient irrigation systems and modern machinery can be transferred to Pakistani farmers to increase productivity and yields. China’s experience in growing a wide range of crops can help Pakistan diversify its agricultural production and expand its export portfolio to include products that are in high demand in international markets. China’s experience in value-added processing of agricultural products can help Pakistan increase the value of its exports by turning raw produce into processed and packaged goods. The joint efforts of Chinese and Pakistani agricultural researchers and institutions can promote the transfer of technology, knowledge and best practices to improve agricultural practices and export quality. Strict quality control and implementation of standards in China can help Pakistan meet international quality requirements and SPS standards, increasing acceptance of Pakistani products in global markets.


In conclusion, Pakistan’s path to access China’s huge agricultural consumption market is full of challenges and opportunities. Strategic positioning, quality assurance, regulatory compliance and technological innovation will play a key role in advancing along this challenging path. Using its strengths and developing cooperation, Pakistan can not only strengthen its trade relations with China, but also contribute to its own economic growth and development. Pakistan is an Agriculture land, but after advancements in Agriculture sector, i.e., production technologies, value addition, post-harvest interventions, quality control, etc. now it faces a lot of problems in export market. The country first needs to strong it’s quality control department, transportation and logistics, storage compartments and production technology by taking help from various trade partners especially China. As it is the present need to strengthen the agriculture sector for both export purposes and to ensure Food Safety and Food Security.


Zhang, W., Yang, X., & Zhang, J. (2020). Analysis on Agricultural Imports in China: Demand, Structure and Influencing Factors. Sustainability, 12, 1393.

Khan, I., & Iqbal, K. (2019). Pakistan-China Relations: Prospects and Challenges. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and Beyond, 1-21.

Ahmad, Z., & Siddiqui, R. (2018). Pakistan-China Free Trade Agreement: Challenges and Prospects. Journal of Political Studies, 25, 53-73.

Charoenratana, V., Khongmalai, O., & Virasa, T. (2017). Chinese Consumers’ Perception and Preference towards Thai Fresh Fruits. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38, 308-315.

Mahmood, K., Javaid, M., & Ahmad, N. (2019). Non-tariff Barriers (NTBs) in Pakistan’s Exports to China: An Analysis of Kinnow and Rice Sectors. Pakistan Development Review, 58, 637-654.

Government of Pakistan. (2017). China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) – Long Term Plan. http://cpec.gov.pk/long-term-plan

Wang, D., Li, S., & Li, C. (2018). An Empirical Study on the Influence of Trust on Chinese Consumers’ Fresh Food Purchase Behavior. Sustainability, 10, 3976.

Yu, J., Wu, W., & Yu, M. (2018). A Study of the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative: The Perspective of Chinese Agri-Product Industry. Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, 11, 242-257.

Publication History

Submitted: August 04, 2023
Accepted: August 20, 2023
Published: September 01, 2023




Muhammad Rizwan, Asim Masood, Fatima Zaheer, Abdul Saboor, Hurairah Ejaz & Kamran Afzal. China’ Big Agri-Product Consumption Market: How Pakistan can access it?. Dinkum Journal of Natural & Scientific Innovations, 2(09):527-530.


© 2023 DJNSI. All rights reserved