Submitted: July 03, 2023
Accepted: July 20, 2023
Published: August 01, 2023
Sadia Farjana & Shahin Akhter (2023). Impact of Feedback on Students’ Learning Activities in Secondary School Level. Dinkum Journal of Social Innovations, 2(08):488-496.
© 2023 DJSI. All rights reserved
Impact of Feedback on Students’ Learning Activities in Secondary School LevelOriginal Article
Sadia Farjana 1*, Shahin Akhter 2
Abstract: The goal of this study was to determine the influence of teachers’ feedback in for motive assessment on students ‘learning outcomes in English subject at secondary school level. Assessment is a continuous procedure that occurs throughout the educational process with the goal of boosting students’ learning. This quantitative study adopted an experimental research design to measure the effect of teachers’ feedback in formative assessment on student learning outcome on English subject through random sampling method. Fifty students were chosen from two schools in the taluka of Kotri Jamshoro. A validated English subject test from the text book of ixth class was used as a research instrument. The research found that teachers’ formative assessment feedback improved students’ English learning results. Teachers’ formative assessment feedback boosted students’ motivation and learning engagement. Thus, successful formative assessment approaches led to improved student learning activities. Administrators should create programmers to help teachers execute formative assessment appropriately in the classroom..
Keywords: students’ learning, facebook, English
People are interested in how effectively their instructors use assessment because it is used to hold instructors accountable, which has piqued people’s interest (Huisman, 2018). Assessment is an essential component of any educational system. If you want to be a teacher who is assessment literate, you need to have a good understanding of what you are assessing, why you are measuring it, and how to apply the most effective assessment techniques. (Chappuis and Chappuis, 2007) You should also understand how to build appropriate assessment practices and how to avoid using ineffective assessment methods. Formative assessment is a collection of formal and informal evaluation techniques used by instructors to make changes to the way they teach and learn in order to help their students perform better; it also includes diagnostic testing. Other names for formative assessment include formative evaluation, formative feedback, and assessment for learning. Formative assessment is used in a variety of different ways by teachers throughout a lesson, unit, or course to check on students’ progress in terms of their comprehension, learning needs, and overall learning (Rust, 2002). Formative evaluations are intended to assist educators in determining what children do not comprehend, what skills they are lacking, and what standards they have not yet attained. In this way, instructors will have the ability to make modifications to the curriculum, the way they teach, and the academic support they provide (Wiliam, 2014). According to Angelo and Thomas A. 1993, a significant number of educators and other professionals are of the opinion that formative assessment practices are an indispensable part of an excellent education. As opposed to the majority of summative examinations, which are purposefully separated from instruction, formative assessments are incorporated into the process of teaching and learning. This is in contrast to summative examinations. A formative assessment technique could be as simple as a teacher asking students to raise their hands if they believe they understand a newly introduced concept, or it could be as complex as students completing a self-assessment of their own writing (typically using a rubric outlining the criteria), which the teacher then reviews and comments on. Either way, it could be as simple as a teacher asking students to raise their hands if they believe they understand a newly introduced concept. While formative assessments are helpful for instructors in identifying student learning requirements and problems, they are also beneficial for students in gaining a deeper comprehension of both their academic strengths and weaknesses. If students are aware of the areas in which they excel and those in which they require improvement, it may encourage them to take greater responsibility for their own learning and academic progress (Umar, 2018). The nation’s assessment and examination systems continue to fall short of expectations at both the macro and micro levels, such as in the assessments and examinations conducted in schools, colleges and individual classrooms. According to Muhammad et al. (2017), this demonstrates that the system does not possess the capability to lead, manage, plan, develop, administer, score, and report on standardized and high-quality school-based assessments and large-scale examinations. On the vast majority of school quizzes, students are only required to regurgitate information directly from their textbooks, rather than analyzing, evaluating, or coming up with something completely original on their own. Students frequently look to textbooks as their primary source of information. There are very few, if any, higher-order thinking exercises included in the textbooks. Because the majority of external examinations do not require higher-order thinking skills, creative teaching strategies that place an emphasis on lower-order thinking skills may lead to students achieving lower scores on examinations as a result of the innovative teacher’s lack of preparation. (Quyen & Khairani, 2016) As a consequence of this, educators are forced to rely on low-level skills such as rote memorization in order to successfully teach their students the material and obtain excellent results from them. PAT, SAT, ASER, NEAS, PEACE, and various other provincial and national comparison examinations are just some of the examples of the many efforts that have been made to assess students and to create policy frameworks to improve students’ learning in schools. These exams routinely demonstrate low student accomplishment in mathematics, science, and English, giving a gloomy image of student’s learning outcomes evaluation and feedback in the essential subjects at the school level. In this regard, the Sindh Government developed a strategy on Sindh Assessment and Examinations. “To carry out the policy initiatives outlined in the NEP 2009, as well as the assessment targets outlined in the Sindh School Education Standards and Curriculum Act, the Sindh Education Sector Plan (SESP), the Curriculum Implementation Framework, and the Sindh Education Student’s Learning Outcomes Assessment Framework (SESLOAF)” has the intention of providing standards-based approaches to assessments, whereas the policies on assessments and examinations have the intention of providing policy. According to the framework, summative assessments should place an emphasis on being formative, ongoing, authentic, and standardized, with a primary focus on assessment for learning (Ahmed et al., 2020). According to Black and Williamson (1998), the implementation of formative assessment practices moves classroom practices in the direction of a learning culture. According to the findings of previous studies, the feedback provided by teachers as part of informative assessment practices is the most effective way to reflect on and improve instructional practices in order to improve learning outcomes. The results of formative assessments can point teachers in the right direction regarding how they should modify their teaching methods in order to improve students’ learning at various points throughout the school year. Students are provided with feedback from their teachers that enlightens them as to what is acceptable and what should be improved upon. A large number of studies, including Black and William (1998) and ABC (2011), have investigated the usefulness of feedback on students’ English subject activities and discovered a substantial link between teachers’ feedback and students’ performance in English subject classes. These findings are consistent with the findings of other studies that have looked at the usefulness of feedback. Feedback in the form of formative assessment is said to be one of the aspects of student learning that is most effective, as stated by ABC (2011). In the current climate of education, where students are expected to learn in an ever-changing environment, formative assessment could be the key to success in both summative appraisal and post-evaluation/assessment knowledge retention. According to Moghaddam et al. (2019), formative assessment has the potential to positively affect the learning methods of both the teacher and the students, thereby assisting students in mastering not only the subject matter at hand but also the learning strategies that are most suitable for them. Because of developments such as globalization and internationalization, the English language has firmly established itself in the modern world as a lingua franca for international communication. Students who enroll in universities in order to earn their degrees have poor command of the English language; consequently, instructors face a great deal of difficulty when it comes to transmitting their knowledge through the delivery of lectures in English. Many students who attend public schools have poor English language skills, and they spend their entire university careers learning English rather than learning and understanding other subjects. As a result, teachers complain that these students spend their time learning English rather than imparting important knowledge to their students. Keeping in mind the significance of the English language as a subject, it is essential to conduct this research in order to determine the current level of English proficiency that students have and to investigate the formative assessment feedback that teachers provide on English topics that are taught in secondary schools (Shakir et al., 2021).
- LITERATURE REVIEW
Throughout the course of human history, there is no doubt that teachers have utilized various methods and approaches in the process of educating their students. According to Tremblay (2013), educators have employed a variety of strategies to evaluate the extent to which students have internalized the material being taught to them. On the other hand, Michael Scriven is the one who came up with the term “formative assessment” in the year 1967. Scriven (1967) provided a description of a formative assessment feedback process that was developed for the purpose of making something better. The formative process adds that “while a programmer is in the design and development phases, it is still changeable,” and “and the knowledge collected through assessment may therefore contribute to change in the programmer” (Greensstein, 2010, p. 20). Since then, the phrase “formative assessment feedbacks” has been used in educational contexts as a method to keep instructors informed about student learning while it is taking place. This technique is also known as “continuous formative assessment.” The information that teachers have been able to obtain through the use of formative assessment procedures has enabled them to make the necessary adjustments and adjustments in the curriculum in the hopes that the students will comprehend it. In the book that Douglass Fisher and Nancy Frey authored (2014), the two authors investigate both the usefulness of typical formative assessment strategies in the classroom as well as the impact that such methods have on the education of the students. These two authors argue that asking students questions like “Did you all understand?” or “Does that make sense?” is not the most effective way to determine whether or not they have understood the material, despite the fact that this is the method that the majority of teachers use. According to Fisher and Frey (2014), these methods are insufficient for determining whether or not students have attained the level of learning that was required of them. The structured work of this book is broken down into a number of categories, some of which are as follows: “Oral language, questioning, writing, projects and performances, assessments, and school-wide methods” (Fisher & Frey, 2014, pages 1-2). According to Fisher and Frey (2014), who lay the groundwork for a teacher’s understanding of the value of formative assessment, it is essential for teachers to have access to a comprehensive formative assessment feedback system. This strategy includes three components: learning objectives, feedback from students, and the planning of students’ education based on deficiencies or mistakes that have been identified. According to Fisher and Frey (2014), instructors will be able to evaluate students’ strengths and weaknesses in order to improve student learning when a comprehensive formative assessment feedback system is in place and used regularly. As part of a meta-analysis of formative assessment, Paul Back and Dylan Williams (1998) wrote an article in which they investigated the success of students. This article was published in 1998. The investigation questioned more than 250 different sources in order to find answers to three important questions. Is there a correlation between improving formative assessment and raising standards? Do you have the impression that there is room for advancement? How can improvements be made to formative assessments? At the end of their research investigation, Black and Williams (1998) came to the realization that the responses to all three questions should be yes. The findings of the study indicate that the implementation of formative assessment can raise the levels of student accomplishment, as the authors of the study have stated. According to what we know, there is no other mechanism for raising standards that possesses such a compelling presumptive argument (Black & Williams, 1998, page 148). Formative assessment feedbacks help learners become aware of any gaps between their intended objective and their existing knowledge, understanding, or ability, and leads them through the steps required to achieve the goal (Savin Baden, 2004). In addition, these feedbacks lead learners through the steps required to achieve the goal. According to the findings of this research study, when students complete their assignments and take exams, the feedback that is most helpful is detailed and specific, and it encourages the recipient to pay attention to the subject matter rather than focusing solely on correctly answering the question.
- MATERIALS AND METHODS
In its nature and scope, it was an experimental research study. Population of the study included two secondary schools of the talukaKotri at district Jamshoro. Convenient sampling method was adopted to select the schools and random sampling method was also applied to select the students of class IX. The student’s achievement testwas prepared from the course and validated from the experts in the relevant field. This experimental study helped to understand the practices of formative assessment feedback improve students’ learningornot. This experimental investigation required four weeks of sessions. During the academic session of 2021, the first was the pre-test, and the last week was the post-test (experimental test). Students were equally selected fromEnglishclassesof9th grade e.g., (n=25 students) from Sec-A and (n=25 students) from Sec-B. Both the experimental and control groups were given an English subject pre-test. The experimental group was taught and assessed through formative assessment feedback on their English book exercises. The lessons from the English book were same in the both groups. After 4 weeks the final post –test wastaken from both groups. For attempting the test students was also given the directions. Test was validated by expert. This experimental study was an attempt to see the influence and relationship of formative assessment feedback on students learning activities on English subject.
- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Frequency distribution, of schools from which the samples have been taken for the collection of data. In this regard 50% samples have been taken from the GGHS labor square, whereas 50% samples have been chosen from the GGHS LUMS colony TalukaKotri District Jamshoro. A two-tailed paired samples t-test was conducted to examine whether the mean difference of Experimental students marks and Control students’ marks was significantly different from zero. A Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to decide if the distinctions/differences between the marks of students of Govt. Girls High School labour square and Govt. Girls High School LUMS Colony could be delivered by a common appropriation/distribution (Razali& Wow, 2011). Shapiro-Wilk test results were not significant based on alpha values of .05, W = 0.96, p = .326. This outcome recommends the likelihood that the distinctions/differences in marks of students of Govt. Girls High School labor square and Govt. Girls High School LUMS Colony cannot be ruled out by a simple division, indicating that the assumptions of normality has been fulfilled. Homogeneity of Variance. Experimental student scores and variations of control student scores were compared using Levine’s test to see if they differed significantly. Based on alpha value .05, F (1, 48) = 0.57, p = .454, Levene’s test result was not significant. This result shows that the marks of the experimental students (Govt. Girls High School labour square) and the marks of the control students (Govt. GirlsHigh School LUMS Colony)were formed by the distribution of equal variables, indicating that the uniformity of the need for change was met. The distinction/difference between the mean of experimental students’ marks (Govt. Girls High School labour square) and the mean of control students’ marks (Govt. Girls High School LUMS Colony) was substantially different from zero, according to this conclusion. Experimental students’ marks’ mean was substantially lower than control students’ marks’ mean. Table 1 summarizes the findings.
Table 01: Pre-test marks of students of GGHS labour square and students of GGHS LUMS Colony.
Note. N = 25 is a point to keep in mind. The t-statistic has 24 degrees of freedom, and d stands for Cohen’s d.
To see if the mean difference between Experimental (Govt. Girls High School labor square) student’s post-test marks and Control group (Govt. GirlsHigh School LUMS Colony) student’s post-test marks was statistically dissimilar from 0, a two-tailed paired samples t-test was applied. Normality. A Shapiro-Wilk test was used to examine that is there any difference between the post-test scores of the experimental students and the post-test scores of the control group students may be due to normal distribution (Razali&Wah, 2011). Based on alpha_valuesof.05,W =0.95,and p = .222, Shapiro-Wilktestresults were not significant. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the difference/distinction between the post-test scores of the experimental students and the post-test scores of the control group students was due to a general distribution, suggesting that the normality assumption was met. Homogeneity of Variance. Post-test scores for experimental students and post-test scores for control group students were compared using Levine’s test to see if they were significantly different. Based on an alpha value of05, F (1, 48) = 0.04, p = .849, Leon’s test result was not significant. This result shows that the post-test scores of the experimental students and the post-test scores of the students in the control group would be generated by dividing them with identical variations, indicating that the uniformity of the change requirement is met. Is done The null HO hypothesis rejected since the two-tailed paired samples t-test resulted ina significant alpha value of.05, t(24)= 7.59, p.001. This result indicates that the difference between the mean of Experimental (Govt. Girls High School labour square) students’ post-test marks and the mean of Control group (Govt. Girls High School LUMS Colony) students’ post-test marks was not zero. The mean of Experimental students’ post-test marks exceeded the mean of Control group students’ post-test marks by a wide margin. Table 2 summarizes the findings. Figure 2 shows a bar plot of the mean values.
Table 02: Post Test Results of Experimental and Control Group
N = 25 is a point to keep in mind. The t-statistic has 24 degrees of freedom, and d stands for Cohen’s d.
Formative assessment practices by teachers were found to have statistically significant effects on students’ learning at the secondary school level, and these effects were found to be of a positive nature. These findings were presented and discussed in the current study. This indicates that students’ learning processes are improved by formative assessment feedbacks, and students perform better when they are assessed through the practices of formative assessment feedback in the classroom after each lesson or chapter. The majority of the research papers that were discussed in the literature review on the topic of assessment came to the following conclusion: formative assessment feedback is a very useful tool for students to enhance their learning and academic performance while teaching and learning continues. This was the conclusion reached by the majority of the research papers. Formative assessment feedback diagnosis is shown to significantly increase academic performance, as stated by Dunn and Mulvenon (2009). According to him, there is an absence of evidence that supports the claim that “educational assessment helps in the process of teaching and learning to reach higher results.” He believes this to be the case. The findings of William’s (2006) study, which state that a number of studies have been carried out and that the findings of this study confirm the findings of those studies, confirmed that educators can benefit from learning from a variety of forms of formative assessment, and that such strategies have assisted educators in reducing the achievement gap between their students and their peers. According to Gallagher and Worth (2008) and Madison-Haris, Mouneke, and Times (2012), “formative assessment assists the instructor in providing focused guidance that can meet the learning objectives that the students have set for themselves.” In addition to fostering growth, it offers information. Regarding the actual learning accomplishments. The statistical findings of this study revealed, among other things, that receiving formative assessment feedback enables a teacher to identify weaknesses or flaws in his or her own teaching and to adjust his or her instructional strategy accordingly, thereby preserving the quality of the teacher’s overall performance. It has also been discovered that providing feedback based on formative assessments encourages students to become more interested in and adventurous with their academic pursuits. Formative assessment feedback can help teachers meet learning objectives, improve student performance, track learning progress and successes, identify student strengths and weaknesses, and clarify student misconceptions, according to research by Gallagher and Worth (2008). The more one knows about, the easier it is to evaluate the effectiveness of various instructional strategies and projects and to reformat educational content. According to Blake and William (1998), research conducted over the course of several decades has demonstrated that early diagnosis enhances student learning. After looking at hundreds of researches and studies in this field, the authors of Black & William (1998), Marshall & William (2002), and Hattie & Timperley (2007) came to the conclusion that the findings of this study have a positive effect on students’ learning performance and that it also serves as an encouraging factor for students to further polish their education. All three of these authors agree with the findings of this study. Schunk and Swartz (1993), Geisler-, Vispoel and Austin (1995), Brenstein and Schmeck (1996), and Black and William (1998) all reach the same conclusions in their research on the effects of formative assessment feedback. Formative assessment feedbacks, according to their findings, bridge the gap between students’ present and actual status in regard to what they have learned and what they aim to learn. This is because students’ present status is based on what they have learned. Assessment that is formative places an emphasis on the learning goals of students and encourages students to engage in self-directed learning, which in turn boosts students’ levels of self-assurance. The findings of previous research conducted by Crooks (1998) and Natriello (1987) are reflective of the findings and conclusions reached in the current investigation. According to the findings of their research, the formative assessment has a very beneficial impact on both the attitudes and accomplishments of students.
- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The findings of this research led the researchers to the conclusion that the use of formative assessment practices and feedbacks has a significant positive impact on the education provided in secondary schools. In other words, students’ English skills and competencies at the secondary school level can be improved through formative assessment feedback on a daily basis in a class by teachers on students’ English learning subject, and students receive higher marks if a teacher gives students feedback on their formative assessment test in a class. This feedback is given by teachers on students’ English learning subjects. The findings of this research indicate that providing students with feedback on their performance on formative assessments has a positive impact on the education they receive. The use of quantitative data approaches allowed for the discovery of this finding, which demonstrates that formative evaluation led to an increase in students’ overall scores. According to the findings, students have the perception that formative evaluation helps improve their confidence as well as their learning and preparation. Formative assessment is a tool that can be used by educators to help guide their instruction and determine what students already know as opposed to what they still need to learn. Students can benefit from the use of formative assessment because it helps to better establish what subject is comprehended and also acts as a path for what requirements need to be improved.
- On the basis of statistical analysis, it is found out that the practices of formative assessment have positive impact on students’ learning at secondary school level.
- Pre-test was conducted from the two group, e.g., Sec-A students and Sec-B students in the test the students got low marks which ranges from 41-63 which are not good enough majority of the students from experimental group secured below 50% marks. The average marks are 51.36 only and the difference is 6.88.
- Pre-test was conducted from the two group, e.g., Sec-A students and Sec-B students in the test the students got low marks which ranges from 41-63 which are not good enough majority of the control group students secured below 50% marks. The average marks are 50.96 only and the difference is 6.09.
- Post-test was conducted from the both groups, e.g., Sec-A students and Sec-B students in the test the students got good marks which ranges from 45-89 which are good enough. The average marks are 73.16 only and the difference is 11.294. it was concluded that the after practicing the formative assessment practices in the class students perform better in the test than the pre-test.
- Post-test was conducted from the both groups, e.g., Sec-A students and Sec-B students in the test the students got good marks which ranges from 45-89 which are good enough. The average marks are 51.36 only and the difference is 7.181 it was concluded that the students who teaching the same practice without applying formative assessment practice their score almost remain same in the class. It is concluded that the students can not improve without the formative assessment.
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Submitted: July 03, 2023
Accepted: July 20, 2023
Published: August 01, 2023
Sadia Farjana & Shahin Akhter (2023). Impact of Feedback on Students’ Learning Activities in Secondary School Level. Dinkum Journal of Social Innovations, 2(08):488-496.
© 2023 DJSI. All rights reserved